The summer rainfall over the JJAS region is negatively correlated with ENSO. Immediately south of the convergence zone, rainfall is heavy because of the unstable nature of maritime tropical air over a heated land surface. Tropical Savanna - Tropical. Second, the near bisection of the continent by the Equator results in a largely symmetrical arrangement of climatic zones on either side. Warm all year, distint rainy or dry seasons, at least 20 inches of rain during the summer. We used rainfall and temperature records between 1987 and 2016 from 46 weather stations across South Africa to calculate annual rainfall seasonality characteristics using two methods. This is an improvement from the previous season, where less rainfall resulted in adverse impacts on agriculture, water resources and hydropower generation in most of the region. The region’s terrain ranges from grasslands and deserts to forests. Mean monthly temperatures are lower than in tropical climates, dropping to about 50 °F (10 °C) in winter, while summer (June–July in North Africa, and December–January in Southern Africa) temperatures may sometimes exceed those of tropical climates. Fifth, because of the extensive plateau surfaces of the continent and the absence of high and long mountain ranges comparable to, for example, the Andes in South America or the Himalayas in Asia, climatic zones in Africa tend to shade into one another, rather than change abruptly from place to place. Average annual rainfall exceeds 200cm to 250cm. In the last decades droughts have caused hunger and starvation in many part of the Sahel and Ethiopia. These northern and southern air masses meet at the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Temperatures are relatively high throughout the year and the majority of the In region 2, the westernmost region, the second rainy season is the more intense. The region could also experience as much as one meter of sea-level rise by the end of this century under a 4 C warming scenario. In order to understand the distribution of natural vegetation, agriculture, wildlife, and domestic livestock in Africa, we must consider climate. In the desert regions of the Sahara, Namib and Kalahari rainfall often drops to under a hundred cm a year. The central portion of the continent is wetter, with tropical rainforests, grasslands, and semi-arid climates. The Sahara Desert is the massive but largely empty region in North Africa that contains the world's largest hot deserts; The Maghreb is a region of northwest Africa encompassing the coastlands and Atlas Mountains of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. We used rainfall and temperature records between 1987 and 2016 from 46 weather stations across South Africa to calculate annual rainfall seasonality characteristics using two methods. In this study, we explore the possible mechanism of opposite ENSO effects on summer rainfall in the JJAS region (northern GHA) and autumn rainfall in the OND region (equatorial GHA). The Sahel region covers a belt of grasslands south of the Sahara stretching from Senegal to Sudan. (a) Shows the percentage of normal rainfall received over Eastern Africa in October–December 2019 from TAMSATv3 (mean based on 1985–2019). While maize is productive, its key limitation is a lack of tolerance to high temperatures and drought conditions. The rainforests consist of various layers of vegetation, from shrubs and ferns on the ground to trees that grow up to a height of 50 metres. This report provides a general overview of the regional climate in southern Africa. Regions 3 and 4 show a single maximum in the boreal summer and autumn. For the multi-region sector average R j, the first step is an arithmetic average of the standardized departures from all I stations within the sector that are available for the season or year in question. © Gayaza High School Geography Department a The mean austral spring and summer (September–February) rainfall (shaded; mm) across southern Africa based on CHIRPS data from 1981 to 2018.b A zoomed in version of the mean spring and summer rainfall for the southeast region of the domain. Only the southern tip of South Africa receives rainfall at this time, from winter cyclones. Less hot than the continental tropical are the maritime tropical and maritime equatorial air masses, which originate from the Indian and South Atlantic oceans, respectively; they differ only in that the maritime equatorial air mass is unstable and brings rain while the maritime tropical air mass, when fully developed, is stable and does not normally bring rain unless it is forced to rise by a high mountain. South of the Equator, at yet greater distance from the convergence zone, the maritime air masses are less-heated, thick, and stable, and they bring hardly any rainfall, except over some of the East African highlands. The winter months are much rainier than the summer months in Cape Town. The highest temperatures of the continent are measured in the desert regions of the Sahara, where daytime temperatures reach up to 50°C.  Nights can be cool and frosty, even during the summer. Areas that experience tropical monsoon climate include areas along the coastal belt e.g. Climate regions in Africa are under change, maybe due to global warming. A fourth factor consists of the cool ocean currents, which chill the winds that blow over them and thereby influence the climate of the neighbouring shores. There is no rainfall on the northern side of the convergence zone, since the region is completely under the dry continental tropical air mass originating over the Sahara. While the Western Cape has a Mediterranean climate with winter rainfall, most of the country experiences summer rain. They are home to thousands of plants and animal species. Winter rainfall region, rain throughout the year, summer rainfall region. Rising greenhouse gases have boosted rainfall in the Sahel region of Africa, easing droughts that killed 100,000 people in the 1970s and 1980s, in a rare positive effect of climate … The climate across West Africa varies from arid to tropical monsoon conditions. The forms of non-randomness which are investigated include linear trends, persistence and quasi-periodic fluctuations. tips of Africa. In East Africa Rodhe and Virji (1976)used agraphical technique inexamining the nature of trend of annual rainfall of 35 stations concentrated mainly i~~Kenya and northern Tanzania. Interactive Grammar and Vocabulary Exercises, East Africa hit by severest drought in 60 years. Moreover, a quasi-permanent subtropical high-pressure cell (the Saharan anticyclone) develops in the heart of northern Africa, while in Southern Africa the belt of high pressure on land weakens during the time of high sun (the season when the Sun is overhead—in December and January in the south). First, extreme events are rare by definition, hence difficult to record. Cape Town climate summary The Cape Town lies on 27m above sea level In Cape Town, the climate is warm and temperate. Africa's climate is dominated by desert conditions along vast stretches of its northern and southern fringes. The harmattan is a warm, dry, northeasterly or easterly wind that blows out of the southern Sahara and is frequently laden with large quantities of sand and dust. In the savannahs and grasslands longer grass is replaced by shorter grass as you move away from the equator, with trees scattered in-between. Semiarid climatic regions fringe the desert areas and include the greater part of the land south of the Zambezi River. The hot desert region consists of the Sahara and Kalahari deserts, which are always under the influence of dry continental tropical air masses, and the northern Kenya–Somali desert, the aridity of which is principally caused by the stable nature of the maritime air masses that pass over it throughout the year. Of these, the least important are the continental polar air masses, which may occasionally bring intense cold to northern Egypt in December and January, and the maritime polar air masses, which are associated with rain-bearing depressions over the northern and southern extremities of the continent during the winter. Near the equator there are two very wet seasons, as the sun passes overhead in spring and fall. No long-term trends in African rainfall are evident. Usually between 30 000 and 50 000 litres. Most parts of Africa are warm or hot, but rainfall varies from region to region. Nutrients in the top layers of the soil are washed away after torrential rain, on the other side nothing can grow if it rains too little. Yet, these regions are densely inhabited and are net exporters of high-quality agricultural products. Temperatures are about the same as those in the desert regions. In most of southern Africa, rainfall peaks in the austral summer/boreal winter. World climates are generally divided into five large regions: tropical, dry, mid-latitude, high latitude, and highland.The regions are divided into smaller subregions that are described below. Thus, at Port Elizabeth there are six months when temperatures are below 62 °F (17 °C), while at Durban mean monthly temperatures do not fall below 64 °F (18 °C). Their graphical technique indicated no significant rainfall trend except in the northeastern region of Kenya where an increasing annual rainfall tendency was displayed. During this time heavy rain falls every day in the afternoon. Other parts of Africa usually have one wet season which gets shorter the farther away you get from the equator. Marked variations in the rhythm of equatorial climate sometimes occur. OND rainfall across East Africa in 2019. The regional rainfall pattern for the 2019/20 agricultural season is encouraging, as parts of southern Africa are expected to receive adequate rainfall in the first half of the season. North of the equator most rain falls from April to September, south of the equator the rainy season is from October to March. Based on current forecast global climate conditions, the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) predicts below- average rainfall … South Africa experiences a high degree of sunshine with rainfall about half of the global average, increasing from west to east, and with semi-desert regions in the north-west. Hot, dry continental air masses originating from the high pressure system above the Sahara Desert give rise to dusty Harmattan winds over most of West Africa from November to February. During this time heavy rain falls every day in the afternoon. Tropical rainforests extend to the north and south of the equator. The rainfall regime is similar to that of the adjacent lowland areas. In Africa: Highveld grassland. 4.1 Modified Equatorial Climate of the Coast. The rest of the year is dry. These are the hot desert, semiarid, tropical wet-and-dry, equatorial (tropical wet), Mediterranean, humid subtropical marine, warm temperate upland, and mountain regions. In summer, moist equatorial air masses originating over the Atlantic Ocean bring annual monsoon rains (Nicholson, 2013). The Indo-Gangetic Plains located South and upwind of the Himalayan foothills. events; increasing aridity; and changes in rainfall—with a particularly pronounced decline in southern Africa and an increase in East Africa. In South Africa, south of KwaZulu-Natal, the winter rainfall is more pronounced, and the … This subregion has little variation in temperature over the year—it is always hot, with an average temperature of 80°F. The warm temperate upland climatic region is found on the Highveld of Southern Africa. But the most notable anomaly can be observed on the western African coast from around Cape Three Points, Ghana, eastward to Benin, where, although the bimodal rainfall regime prevails, the total annual precipitation is less than 40 inches (1,000 millimetres). Since the coastal regions are at a lower altitude, high temperatures are experienced. This region is characterized by rainfall throughout the year, but it is heaviest in summer. The south-western parts of RSA, Western Cape. The use of high-resolution rainfall data inherently accounts for the temporal distribution of rainfall intensity. Central Asia: Mongolian Region: The region lies in the heart of the conti­nent containing a vast territory of mountains, and plateaus from Tibet to Mongolia. At this season the whole of northern Africa (except the Atlas Mountains) is under the dry continental tropical air mass, while Southern Africa receives rainfall except in the Cape region and on the southwest coast, where the maritime air mass remains stable offshore over the cool Benguela Current. Its rainfall regime is similar to that of the tropical wet-and-dry climate, but temperatures are greatly modified by the altitude; frost, for example, occasionally occurs in Lesotho. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as Csb. Plant life is influenced by the amount of rainfall. Climate is a long-term weather pattern, the sum of features such as temperature, rainfall, and wind. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. Temperatures in South Africa tend to be lower than in other countries at similar latitudes – such as Australia – mainly because of its greater elevation above sea level. The coldest regions of Africa lie in the eastern highlands and southern Africa. High-resolution rainfall data are often required as input into continuous simulation hydrological models and other hydrological studies. These quantify the strength of seasonality, and the wet-season start- and end-dates, length, total rainfall amount, number of rain days and rainfall intensity. Other mountains with high rainfall include the Outeniqua Mountain, mountains of the South-western Cape and the Winterberg and Amatola Mountains, in the central parts of the Eastern Cape. This is because the incremental time-steps are small enough, i.e. New Delhi: Scientists have found that aerosols like black carbon and dust, which makes the Indo-Gangetic Plain one of the most polluted regions of the world, have led to increased incidents of high rainfall events in the foothills of the Himalayan Region, according to an official statement. In recent years with similar climate drivers (1998, 1999, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2016, and 2017), rainfall was below average (Figure 1). At the ITCZ itself, however, precipitation is prolonged and intense as air converges between the maritime and continental air masses and is forced aloft. Most of Africa is divided into wet and dry seasons. North of the equator most rain falls from April to September, south of the equator the rainy season is from October to March. The Mediterranean coast as well as the southern part of Africa get rainfall during the winter months. In July the ITCZ—following the sun—moves northward toward the area of low pressure over the Sahara; there the maritime and continental tropical air masses converge, with the maritime air masses swinging inland from the sea. Region 1, the easternmost region, has more rainfall in the boreal spring, similar to eastern equatorial Africa. We then explored how these characteristics … A number of factors influence the climate of the African continent. The region’s climate is mainly influenced by large scale seasonal atmospheric patterns and the warm waters of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. This region covers a little less than half of the total surface area of the continent, extending toward the Equator from the semiarid areas. As in the desert and semiarid climatic zones, mean monthly temperatures show less variation than daily temperatures. The Highveld meets this definition and probably owes much to unaided nature for its creation and perpetuation, since fires caused by lightning strikes are relatively frequent. First, most of the continent—which extends from 35° S to about 37° N latitude—lies within the tropics. 4 Climatic Regions in Kenya. In response to the increasing climate-related health threats, member states in African region in 2016 adopted the Regional Strategy for Health Security and Emergencies which, along with the International Health Regulations, aims at strengthening countries’ capacities to detect, prevent and response to public health emergencies. The mountain climatic region includes the high mountain areas of Ethiopia and the lake region of East Africa. This region is characterized by rainfall throughout the year, but it is heaviest in summer. The hot, dry continental tropical air mass, which is present in the upper levels of the atmosphere, descends to the ground only at the convergence zone. While these factors help to account for the broad climatic patterns of the African continent, there are nevertheless numerous local variations to be found from place to place within the same climatic zone. In addition to aridity, the desert climate is characterized by high mean monthly temperatures; the diurnal (daily) temperature range is, however, greater than the annual range of the mean monthly temperature. The rainfall can be distributed across most of the year, or in two rainy seasons with short drier periods between the rains. TROPICAL WET. Extreme rainfall in West Africa: A regional modeling ... rainfall extremes in order to provide regional maps of high quantiles of the distributions (typically, 20 to 100 year or higher return period values), thus allowing to estimate these quantiles at nonobserved sites. Predicting shifts in rainfall patterns in South Africa is much less certain. The most important differentiating climatic element is rainfall; this, together with several other climatic elements, depends upon the characteristics of the dominating air mass. Rainfall varies from 500 to 1 100 mm with a short winter dry season. Finally, the high mountains have climatic zones of their own that vary with altitude. Rain falls only in winter (December–January in North Africa, June–July in Southern Africa), although in some localities it may fall in autumn (September in North Africa, April in Southern Africa). Through the Africa Rainfall Project, researchers at Delft University of Technology will create high-resolution computer simulations of localized rainstorms in sub-Saharan Africa. There is high average temperatures and humidity throughout the year. In sub-Saharan Africa, 95 percent of agriculture depends on rainfall, which makes accurate weather forecasts absolutely crucial. around Malindi, Mombasa, Tanga, Dar es Salaam, Kilwa etc. Higher latitudes in the tropics. For that reason, this formulation is conventionally used in studies of interannual variability of African rainfall. Humidity is always high, making life in this region very unpleasant. The great distinguishing feature of this climatic region is the seasonal character of its rainfall. The Sahara is moving southward and more and more areas are threatened by deforestation. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. Even the driest month of the year receives rainfall more than 6cm. In the four equatorial regions rainfall tends to peaks in the boreal spring and autumn. A Warmer Cape Region By the end of this century, southern Africa will be an average of 3.4°C warmer, according to the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. The stability of these maritime air masses is induced by their passing over the cool body of water offshore. In some respects the climate is similar to the warm temperate upland climate, except that temperatures are even lower and snow occurs on the tops of the highest peaks, such as Kilimanjaro. Name the 3 most important rainfall regions in South Africa. A follow-up report that provides a specific focus on the climate of the semi-arid regions of southern Africa is currently under development. hot region like a tropical rain forest. Thorn woodland, grassland, and semidesert vegetation. The two regions are identified based on the spatial distribution of high seasonal fractions of annual rainfall for the period 1979–2016. When considered in detail, the movement of air masses and their effects provide the basis for a division of the continent into eight climatic regions. As the other equatorial climate in this region, this region has no dry season but has a well-developed double maximum rainfall in May and October. The grassland classification is restricted to regions with 10 percent or less woody plant cover. In consequence, the influence of the sea extends farther inland in Southern Africa. For example, the rainfall may be monsoonal and the second rainy season may be all but nonexistent. Because areas with an equatorial climate are constantly covered by warm maritime air masses, variations in their monthly and daily temperatures are less pronounced than in the tropical wet-and-dry regions. Instead of spring, summer, fall, and winter, most countries south of the Sahara Desert have dry and rainy seasons. East Africa, consisting of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania, straddles the equator. Temperature. The ITCZ (also known as the heat Equator) moves between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn depending on the season. More specifically, our objectives are as follows: It decreases the farther you move away from the equator. 1.1 General overview The climate across southern Africa … The rainiest areas are the Lake Victoria basin, the mountains, and the coastal islands, which receive more than 59 inches … We evaluated the combined aspects of anomalous high rainfall and concurrent soil saturation in a RVF forecast model for South Africa, using accurate temporal and spatial records of the 2008–2011 epidemics to derive risk maps (Directorate of Animal Health, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, pers. The rainfall is high and ranges between 1000mm and 1800mm. In western Africa the period of low sun corresponds to the harmattan season. Climate Information Tool, Monthly Data This tool provides data for any location in Africa, even if no weather station is available. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Typically experiencing higher average temperatures, urban areas also frequently have less wind and lower relative humidity; there is too little relevant data from Africa, however, to permit a detailed study of urban climates. The climate is humid with a tropical regime. South Africa’s highest rainfall occurs in the eastern and southern mountains such as the Drakensberg, from Limpopo, through Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal to the northern parts of the Eastern Cape. During the period of high sun, the maritime air masses produce up to six months of rainfall, the length of the rainy season depending on nearness to the Equator. The diverse climates of Africa range from scorching deserts to icy glaciers, from steamy rainforests to grassy plains. the N.E & S.E monsoons tend to bring in heavy rainfall. Warming of the oceans enhances the stability of the tropical atmosphere and weakens deep ascent in the Hadley circulation. However, there are exceptions to this pattern. The climate is basically influenced by the seasonal winds known as the monsoon winds. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. Iquitos (Peru), Akassa and Ocean Island receive 261 cm, 366cm and 213cm of rain per annum respec­tively. Here we analyze the relationship between El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and South Africa austral winter rainfall using a 682 raingauges daily rainfall database documenting the … In doing so, one has to meet two challenges. hourly or sub-hourly, to represent different intensities. In contrast, Zhang, Brandt, Guichard, Tian, and Fensholt reported a stronger recovery of rainfall totals for the 1983–2015 period in the broadly defined West African Sahel, compared to regions to the East (Chad, Sudan), but lack of ground calibration for the satellite‐based data set in the latter region … Urban areas, for example, have climates that often differ in many respects from those of the surrounding countryside. In a few places—for example, on the coast of Mauritania and Senegal—there is also a little rainfall in the period of low sun. 2013; Nicholson 2017, respectively) and a precursor to the WAM in its coastal phase (May–June) and over the Sahel (July–September) (Nicholson and Grist 2003). The green polygon in both panels illustrates the location of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. As the coastal region is a high rainfall area and the showers are often of higher intensity than in other areas, larger tanks are recommended to contain the additional rainfall. Projected rainfall change over sub-Saharan Africa in the mid- and late 21st century is uncertain. During the period of low sun in the Northern Hemisphere (from December to January, when the sun has moved to its southern limit), the situation described above is reversed. only received major rainfall half of the year and dry season the other half. We focus on the April rainfall, a month of high seasonal rainfall over west and east tropical Africa (e.g., Washington et al. While Western Cape gets most of its rainfall in winter, the rest of the country is generally a summer-rainfall region. Because they'll use massive, crowdsourced computing power from World Community Grid, they'll be able run simulations at a much higher resolution—exactly what's needed for localized rainstorms. 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