Physical Properties Ductile or Not Ductile? Several americium compounds have been made and these are generally coloured - for example, the chloride is pink. Physical properties of Americium include melting point, boiling point, mechanical strength Americium can be added during accidental release in nuclear production plants. [84][85] It is harmful to life. There are two long-lived alpha-emitters; 243Am has a half-life of 7,370 years and is the most stable isotope, and 241Am has a half-life of 432.2 years. More properties... Americium atoms have 95 electrons and the shell structure is Physical and chemical properties of Americium: general data, thermal properties, ionization energies, isotopes, reduction potentials, abundance of elements, crystallographic data. Experts have also warned that exposure to the toxic element may damage the lungs and thyroid glands. Americium ’s behavior in the environment cannot be isolated from that of plutonium as a precursor of 241 Am. Previous. Properties of Americium Americium is the 95th element on the Periodic table Americium has an atomic number of 95, which depicts the number of protons it has in its nucleus. Americium was first made late in 1944 at the University of Chicago by a team which included Glenn Seaborg, Ralph James, Leon Morgan, and Albert Ghiorso. These elements are all radioactive with an unusual range of physical properties. Find information on Americium including chemical element properties like atomic weight and a list of compounds that contain Americium. Unknown in nature, americium (as the isotope americium-241) was artificially produced from plutonium-239 (atomic number 94) in 1944 by American chemists Glenn T. … It is represented by symbol Am. The number of electrons in each of Americium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Rn] 5f 7 7s 2. When animals are exposed to extreme levels of americium, results may be damage to organs such as the lungs, liver and thyroid. [75] The pnictides of americium (243Am) of the AmX type are known for the elements phosphorus, arsenic,[76] antimony and bismuth. In the bones, americium is first deposited over cortical and trabecular surfaces and slowly redistributes over the bone with time. McCluskey died at the age of 75 of unrelated pre-existing disease. People that work in nuclear power plants and people that live near nuclear power plants may be exposed to higher levels of americium. It is a silvery-white metal with a melting point of about 1,175°C (2,150°F) and a density of about 13.6 grams per cubic centimeter. Chemical element: Americium (Am) Metric System; Date Calculator; Salary Calculator; Molecular Weight; Discussion Forum ›› Physical and chemical properties of Americium. For example, the element has been employed to gauge glass thickness to help create flat glass. The americium was produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Americium-242 is a short-lived isotope with a half-life of 16.02 h.[13] It mostly (82.7%) converts by β-decay to 242Cm, but also by electron capture to 242Pu (17.3%). [110] Americium-241 gamma rays were also used to provide passive diagnosis of thyroid function. Several americium compounds have been made and these are generally coloured - for example, the chloride is pink. Radiochimica Acta 2012 , 100 (12) , 901-906. It belongs to actinide series and has atomic number 95. [25] Americium-241 is also suitable for calibration of gamma-ray spectrometers in the low-energy range, since its spectrum consists of nearly a single peak and negligible Compton continuum (at least three orders of magnitude lower intensity). This WebElements periodic table page contains physical properties for the element americium This process is currently done in the most effective way in the kind of nuclear reactors know as “fast reactors”. Americium's atomic number is 95. Download PDF to View View Larger. Some of these BTP-type complexes selectively interact with americium and therefore are useful in its selective separation from lanthanides and another actinides. Here americium acts as the alpha source, and beryllium produces neutrons owing to its large cross-section for the (α,n) nuclear reaction: The most widespread use of 241AmBe neutron sources is a neutron probe – a device used to measure the quantity of water present in soil, as well as moisture/density for quality control in highway construction. We report an investigation of the ground-state properties of americium dioxide and its sesquioxides using first-principles calculations. Up to date, curated data provided by Mathematica 's ElementData function … Compare elements on more than 90 properties. It rarely occurs as a free element in the earth’s crust. [114][115][116][117] There have been a few cases of exposure to americium, the worst case being that of chemical operations technician Harold McCluskey, who at the age of 64 was exposed to 500 times the occupational standard for americium-241 as a result of an explosion in his lab. [72], Oxyhalides of americium in the form AmVIO2X2, AmVO2X, AmIVOX2 and AmIIIOX can be obtained by reacting the corresponding americium halide with oxygen or Sb2O3, and AmOCl can also be produced by vapor phase hydrolysis:[68], The known chalcogenides of americium include the sulfide AmS2,[73] selenides AmSe2 and Am3Se4,[73][74] and tellurides Am2Te3 and AmTe2. The physical and chemical properties of americium are similar to those of plutonium (the element to its left on the periodic table) and europium (the element above it on the periodic table). [89], The isotope 242mAm (half-life 141 years) has the largest cross sections for absorption of thermal neutrons (5,700 barns),[90] that results in a small critical mass for a sustained nuclear chain reaction. This member of the actinide series is located in the periodic table under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas. Americium Chemical Properties. Author(s): McWhan, Denis Bayman. This WebElements periodic table page contains physical properties for the element americium This technology could lead to systems to power missions with durations up to 400 years into interstellar space, where solar panels do not function.[107][108]. The half-lives of other isotopes and isomers range from 0.64 microseconds for 245m1Am to 50.8 hours for 240Am. It relies on the very high rate of nuclear fission of 242mAm, which can be maintained even in a micrometer-thick foil. [77] Borides of americium include AmB4 and AmB6. Americium Properties. Biological properties. Presentation Mode Open Print Download Current View. The oxide of 241Am pressed with beryllium is an efficient neutron source. (Eds. These similarities and dissimilarities should be known while we study periodic table elements. Next. It is more frequently produced in the lab. It has been proposed to use bacteria for removal of americium and other heavy metals from rivers and streams. All reviewers were selected in conformity with the conditions for peer ... 1.1 WHAT IS AMERICIUM? [97][98][99][100], As 241Am has a roughly similar half-life to 238Pu (432.2 years vs. 87 years), it has been proposed as an active element of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, for example in spacecraft. Americium and Plutonium chemical properties are one of the most important characteristics [86] Several studies have been reported on the biosorption and bioaccumulation of americium by bacteria[87][88] and fungi. Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry Letters 1972 , 8 (8) , 709-723. The chemistry of americium(III) has many similarities to the chemistry of lanthanide(III) compounds. Plutonium, americium, and curium are produced in both thermal and breeder reactors. Any smoke that enters the chamber absorbs the alpha particles, which reduces the ionization and affects this current, triggering the alarm. As with most other actinides, the isotopes of americium with odd number of neutrons have relatively high rate of nuclear fission and low critical mass. All the elements of similar categories show a lot of similarities and differences in their chemical, atomic, physical properties and uses. [13], Americium-241 decays to 237Np emitting alpha particles of 5 different energies, mostly at 5.486 MeV (85.2%) and 5.443 MeV (12.8%). Francis, in Radionuclide Behaviour in the Natural Environment, 2012. [106] Even with all the potential benefits, the current applications of 242mAm are as yet hindered by the scarcity and high price of this particular nuclear isomer. Up to date, curated data provided by Mathematica 's ElementData function … The most stable nuclear isomer is 242m1Am; it has a long half-life of 141 years. Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, and nomenclature. This chapter discusses physical and chemical properties of plutonium, americium, and curium of biological importance. On the one hand, such knowledge is essential for determining the concentra tion and type of defects appearing as a result of radio active decay [1]. Am metal readily reacts with oxygen and dissolves in aqueous acids. [92] Scarcity and high price yet hinder application of americium as a nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors. One gram of plutonium-238 produces approximately 0.57 watt of thermal power, primarily from alpha-particle decay, and this property has been used in space exploration to provide energy for small thermoelectric-power units. AmSi is a black solid isomorphic with LaSi, it has an orthorhombic crystal symmetry. It is a transuranic element and is highly radioactive. [74], Americium monosilicide (AmSi) and "disilicide" (nominally AmSix with: 1.87 < x < 2.0) were obtained by reduction of americium(III) fluoride with elementary silicon in vacuum at 1050 °C (AmSi) and 1150−1200 °C (AmSix). Uses of Actinium. Physical properties of americium. However this isotope is extremely expensive to produce in usable quantities. Americium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 7 element. By performing density functional theory (DFT) +U calculations, we systematically study the electronic, mechanical, tensile, and thermodynamic properties of AmO 2.It is found that the chemical bonding character in AmO 2 is similar to that in PuO 2, with smaller charge transfer and stronger covalent interactions between americium and oxygen atoms.